Sabtu, 14 Juli 2012



The Biggest Animals Kingdom and in The World | Deer | The word "deer" was originally a broad meaning, but in the course of time more accurately. For many larger deer man a "deer", as used for most other deer in the same terms as for cattle, is "bull" and "cow". The red deer is "deer", especially if more than five years, and the female is a "late", particularly when three or more years old, both terms are used for all kinds of deer, and were widely thus used in the past. Terms of young deer vary similarly, that more than a "flat" and that the largest species of the "calf" to be young of smaller species may be a child. A group of deer of any kind is a "herd". The relative adjective related to deer is cervine, as the name of the family "Cervidae" which is from the Latin cervus, "deer".

Deer are widespread, with representatives of indigenous peoples on every continent except Antarctica and Australia, but Africa has only one native species, Red Deer, is limited to the Atlas Mountains in the northwest of the continent. However, deer were introduced to South Africa Deer live in a variety of biomes, from tundra to rain forest. Although often associated with forest are many deer are ecotone species that live in transitional areas between forests and thickets (for cover) and prairie and savanna (open space). The majority of large deer species inhabit temperate mixed deciduous forest, mountain mixed coniferous forest, seasonal forest / dry tropical savannas and around the world. To grow beyond adjacent areas can also benefit deer access.

Some deer have a circumpolar distributed in North America and Eurasia. The highest concentration of large deer species in temperate North America is to be found between the mountainous regions of Alberta and British Columbia, where (can white-tailed deer, mule deer Caribou, Elk, and Moose) all five North American deer species in the Canadian Rockies and Columbia. This region has several sets of national parks including Mount Revelstoke National Park, Glacier National Park (Canada), National Park Yoho and Kootenay National Park in British Columbia and Banff National Park, Jasper National Park and Glacier National Park (USA) on the sides of Alberta and Montana. Habitats ranging from humid mountainside coniferous / mixed forest habitats to subalpine / pine forests and mountain meadows above dry.

Mule deer and elk between the two alpine meadows and pine forests to migrate lower and tend to be more common in this region. Elk also inhabit river valleys, they share with white-tailed deer. The Eurasian continent (including the Indian subcontinent) has found the greatest number of species of deer in the world, with most species in Asia. Current deer populations in Europe are the result of a historic man-made discharges of this kind, first on the Mediterranean regions of Europe, then eventually to the rest of Europe. Historically, Europe's deer species shared their deciduous forest habitat with other herbivores such as the extinct Tarpan (forest horse), extinct aurochs (forest ox), and in danger of bison (Bison).

The highest concentration of large deer species in temperate Asia occurs in deciduous forests, mountain coniferous forests, and taiga bordering North Korea, Manchuria (Northeast China), and the Ussuri Region (Russia). These include some of the richest deciduous and coniferous forests of the world where one can Siberian roe deer, sika deer, elk, moose and find. Red deer, sika deer, as deer, Thorold, the Central Asian Red Deer, elk, and since time immemorial for their antlers run by Han Chinese, Turkic peoples, Tungusic peoples, Mongolians and Koreans.

The highest concentration of large deer species in the tropics occurs in Southern Asia region of Northern India, Indo-Gangetic plain and the Terai region of Nepal. These fertile plains consist of tropical moist deciduous, dry deciduous forests, and wet and dry savannah, home to chital hog, deer, barasingha, Indian Sambar, and Indian muntjac are. Hog deer are solitary and have densities lower than the Indian muntjac. Deer can be used in several national parks in India, Nepal, Sri Lanka and those of Kanha National Park, Dudhwa National Park and Chitwan National Park are the most visible. Sri Lanka Wilpattu National Park Yala National Park and have large herds of chital and sambar Indian.

The Chao Praya River Valley of Thailand was once primarily tropical deciduous forest, moist and humid savanna shown that populations of deer, hog deer, the now-extinct Schomburgk, the Eld Deer, Indian Sambar, and Indian muntjac. Both deer and hog deer are rare ELD, whereas Indian Sambar and Indian muntjac thrive in protected national parks such as Khao Yai. Many of these South Asian and Southeast Asian species of deer also share their habitat with various herbivores such as elephants, several species of Asian rhino, various antelope species (such as nilgai, four horned antelope, black, and the Indian gazelle India), and wild oxen (like wild Asian water buffalo, gaur, banteng and kouprey).

Australia has six introduced species of deer, the sustainable market introduction of wild populations acclimatization society had been received in the 19 Century. It is deer, sambar deer, pigs and Rusa and Chital. Deer introduced to New Zealand have been domesticated in 1851 by English and Scottish camp in Deer farms by the late 1960s and are often animals there now. Seven other species of deer were introduced to New Zealand, but none is as common as deer. A deer is a deer with a standard brown and white spots, which is not caused by parasites or diseases seen. Deer have always had economic importance for humans. Deer were originally brought to New Zealand by European settlers, and the deer population has grown by leaps and bounds.

Increases in deer farming in New Zealand a significant economic activity with more than 3,000 companies that carry more than one million deer in total. Deer products are exported to over 50 countries, with New Zealand still recognized as a source of quality deer and co-products. Automobile collisions with deer can impose a significant cost factor for the economy. The sight of a deer standing motionless, into the spotlight to the phrase "deer in the headlights.In 2008, 733.998 Licensed Deer Hunters over 489 922 white-tailed deer in an attempt, the deer population and the spread of the disease harvested under control. These hunters purchased more than 1.5 million deer harvest tag. The economic value of deer hunting for the Michigan economy is considerable. For example, in 2006, hunters spent $ 507 million U.S. white-tailed deer hunting in Michigan.

A number of deer hybrids are designed to improve the yield of the game in creation. American elk (wapiti or) and Red Deer from the Old World can produce fertile offspring in captivity, and were as a species. Recent DNA studies of animal behavior and morphology and antler characteristics have shown that there is one, but three species of Red Deer: European Red Deer, Central Asian Red Deer, moose and Americans. Wapiti have been introduced in some European cattle deer to improve the type of deer, but not always with the desired improvement. In New Zealand, where deer are introduced, there are hybrid zones between populations of deer and elk in North America and between Sika deer and deer populations. In New Zealand, deer have been artificially hybridized with Pere David Deer, a farmed deer which gives birth to create in the spring. The first hybrids were created by artificial insemination and back-crossed deer. However, hybrid offspring survive only in captivity free of predators.

In Canada, the creation of European and hybrid deer deer as a threat to native Wapiti. In Britain, the introduction of sika deer as a threat to native Red Deer. First Hybrid sika / red deer occur when young Sika stags expand their range established in areas and Sika deer have no mate to Hinds. Many of the Sika Deer which escaped from British parks were probably already hybrids for this reason. Captive deer were covered in white-tailed deer. Both deer male / female white-tailed deer and white-tailed deer male / female Mule Deer matings have produced hybrids.

Captive hybrids, even a hybrid of an eighth white-tail/seven-eighths mule deer an erratic escape behavior and would probably not survive to reproductive age not hybrids to survive on ranches game where both types are operated, where predators are controlled by people . Deer are represented in heraldry by the stag or deer, or, less frequently, from behind, and the deer (a young deer up to two years). Deer heads and antlers also appear in the form of charges. The old name was simply appears Cerf for deer, and especially the head, arms in the old. Several Norwegian municipalities have a deer or deer head in his arms: Gjemnes, Hitra Hjartdal, Rendalen and Voss.
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