Sabtu, 25 Agustus 2012



The Biggest Animals Kingdom and in The World | Hippopotamus | Hippos are among the largest mammals that only elephants and some rhinoceroses and whales are heavier. They can live in the water or on land. Hippos are considered megafauna, but unlike all other African megafauna, hippos have adapted for a semi-aquatic life in freshwater lakes and rivers. A hippo's lifespan is generally 40-50 years. Donna the Hippo, 60, was the oldest living hippo in captivity. The oldest hippo ever recorded was called Tanga, lives in Monaco of Bavaria, Germany, and died in 1995 at age 61. Because of their enormous size, hippopotamuses are difficult to weigh in nature.

The average weights for adult males varies between 1500-1800 kg (3.300 to 4.000 lb). Females are smaller than their male counterparts, with average weights measuring between 1.300 to 1.500 2.900 to 3.300 kg (lb). Older males can get much larger, reaching at least 3,200 kg (7,100 lb), with some exceptional specimens of more than 3600 kg (7900 pounds). The heaviest known hippopotamus weighed approximately 4,500 kg (9900 pounds). Male hippos appear to continue growing throughout their lives, women up to a maximum weight of about 25 years.

Hippos measure 3.3 to 5.2 meters (11-17 ft) in length, including a tail of about 56 cm (22 cm) in length and an average of about 1.5 meters (5 feet) tall at the withers. The range of hippopotamus sizes overlaps with the range of the white rhino, the use of different metrics makes it clear that it is the largest land animal after elephants. Although they are bulky animals, hippopotamuses faster than any human on earth. The hippo can maintain these higher speeds for only a few hundred meters. This allows them to enter the water with most of their body submerged in the waters and mud of tropical rivers to stay cool and prevent sunburn. Hippos have legs of small size (compared to other megafauna) because the water in which they live reduces the weight load. Unlike many other semi-aquatic animals, the hippopotamus has very little hair.

On the National Geographic Channel television program, "Dangerous Encounters with Brady Barr", Dr. Brady Barr measured the bite force of an adult female hippo at 8100 N (1821 lbf) Barr also tried to bite pressure of an adult to measure male hippopotamus, but the attempt was due to the aggressiveness of the man to leave. Hippopotamus teeth grinding how your times together. Two different pigments have been identified in the separation, a red (hipposudoric acid), and an orange (acid norhipposudoric). All hippos, even those with different diets, separating the pigments, so the food is the source of the pigments. Instead, the animals can synthesize the precursors of pigments, such as tyrosine.

Hippopotamus amphibius was widespread in North Africa and Europe during the Eemian and late Pleistocene until about 30,000 years ago. Hippos spend most of their days wallowing in water or mud, with the other members of their container. The water serves to maintain their body and their skin from drying out. Hippos leave the water at dusk and travel inland, sometimes up to 8 km (5 mi), to graze on short grass, their main source of food. Hippos have (rarely) been filmed eating carrion, usually near water. The stomach anatomy of a hippo is not suitable for carnivorous and eats the meat is likely caused by aberrant behavior or nutritional stress The diet of hippos consists mostly of terrestrial grasses, even if they spend most of their time in the water.

For longer periods hippos can cause the paths of swamps and channels Hippos adults with a speed of 8 km / h (5 mph) in water. Adult hippos typically resurface every three to five minutes to breathe. The process of the surface and breathing is automatic, and even a bed hippo underwater will rise and breathe without waking. A hippo closes its nostrils when submerged in water. As in the case of fish and turtles on a coral reef, hippo occasionally visit cleaning stations and signal their willingness to open their mouth clean of parasites by certain species. Female hippos reach sexual maturity at 5-6 years of age and have a gestation period of 8 months. A study has found that female hippopotamuses endocrine systems puberty can begin with 3 or 4 years old. Males reach maturity at about 7.5 years.

Studies of hippos in Zambia and South Africa showed evidence of births that occur at the beginning of the rainy season. A mother usually gives birth to only one hippo, although twins also occur. Like many other large mammals are hippos described as a strategy K, in this case, typically the production of a large, well-developed child two years (in lieu of a large number of small, underdeveloped times a year younger as is common in small mammals, such as rodents ) The earliest evidence of human interaction with hippos comes from butchery cut marks on bones hippo Bouri Formation dated around 160,000 years ago. The ancient Egyptians recognized the hippo as a ferocious denizen of the Nile.

The hippopotamus was known to the Greeks and Romans. The Greek historian Herodotus described the hippopotamus in the stories (written around 440 BC) and the Roman historian Pliny the Elder wrote about the hippopotamus in his encyclopedia Naturalis Historia (written around 77 AD). Hippopotamus was one of the many exotic animals to fight gladiators in Rome by the emperor Philip the Arab to the 1000 anniversary Rome in 248 AD to commemorate. Zulu warriors preferred to use as brave as a hippopotamus, since even lions were not considered brave. The column was accompanied by John Dunn, a white Zulu chief, who led a IMPI (army) of 2000 Zulu warriors to the British closing. Invooboo! Yah-bo! Yah-bo! Invooboo! Yes, it's better than a lion is a hippopotamus.
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