Minggu, 02 September 2012



The Biggest Animals Kingdom and in The World | Jellyfish | Most jellyfish do not have specialized digestive, osmoregulatory, central nervous, respiratory and circulatory systems. Jellyfish bodies are composed of more than 95% water, most of their umbrella mass of gelatinous material called mesoglea jelly, which is surrounded by two layers of protective film. Jellyfish do not have a brain or central nervous system, but use a free network of nerves in the epidermis, which is called "neural network". Jellyfish detects various stimuli including the touch of other animals on the network of nerve then transmits impulses both throughout the network and the nerve to the circular nerve ring on rhopalial lapel located on the edge of the jellyfish body with other nerve cells.

The smallest kind of creeping jellyfish jellyfish in childbirth and Staurocladia Elevter, Bell drives from 0.5 mm to several millimeters in diameter, or with short tentacles to go beyond this, where these tiny jellyfish crawling on algae rocky ground pools. Hydro-jellyfish Cladonema radiatum and Cladonema californicum are also very small, living for a few months, but never growing a few mm in height and diameter of the bell is another small species of jellyfish is the Australian Irukandji, which is about the size of a fingernail. The lion's mane jellyfish, Cyanea capillata considered the largest jellyfish, and possibly the longest animal in the world, extending from the thin, threadlike tentacles that can be up to 36.5 meters (120 feet) long (though most of them are not so long great quotes) you have a moderately painful, but rarely fatal sting.

More huge Nomura jellyfish, Nemopilema nomurai in some, but hardly all years in the waters of Japan, Korea and China in summer and autumn is a much better candidate for "largest jellyfish", since the largest Nomura's jellyfish in late autumn can be 200 centimeters (79 inches) hood (body) in diameter and about 200 kg (440 lb) to achieve weight, on average, the sample is often as high as 90 centimeters (35 inches) in diameter bell, and about 150 kg (330 lbs) in weight. The large mass of the bell giant Nomura jellyfish can shadow diver and almost always much more than before, up to 100 centimeters (39 inches) Mane bell diameter Lion.

There is rarely a deep giant jellyfish Stygiomedusa another solid candidate for "largest jellyfish", with its thick, massive bell to 100 centimeters (39 inches) wide, and four thick, "belt, as" oral arms, legs and 6 (20 feet) in length, are very different from the typical fine, threadlike tentacles. umbrella of the more typical kind of jellyfish rim, including the lion's mane Most jellyfish and jellyfish polyps generations turn over their entire life cycle. Develops after fertilization, a primitive form of the free larva called planula. Planula covered with cilia, small larva. Some polyps can also produce asexual form of creeping frustule larvae, which then develops into a new polyp. Polyp usually planted stalk with a mouth surrounded by upward-facing tentacles.

Polyps may individually or colonial. Polyp colonies were formed by contraction, some polyps that have the general peritoneal cavity. Most polyps are very small, measured in millimeters. Polyp stage may last for years. Finally, the results of the polyp stage of a jellyfish. New jellyfish are usually created asexually by budding or budding from polyps. Medusa stage of life, which is most commonly defined as a jellyfish. Jellyfish reproduce both sexually and asexually. Spawn on reaching adult size, jellyfish in the day, when it is full. Jellyfish are usually either male or female (hermaphroditic individuals are rare.) A few jellyfish species can lead to new medusae by budding directly from the stage medusan. Promising sites, depending on the tentacle bulbs, the handle (above the mouth), or the gonads hydro jellyfish. Several types of jellyfish hydro fission (splitting in half) to breed.

Asexually in the second stage, the tiny polyps produce jellyfish, each of which is also known as a jellyfish. Tiny jellyfish (usually only one or two millimeters in diameter) swim away from the polyp and then grow and feed in the plankton jellyfish radially symmetric, umbrella shaped bodies are like a bell, which is usually supplied with marginal tentacles - fringe expansion Bell catch limit prey. A few species of jellyfish polyps are not part of the life cycle, but go from jellyfish to the next generation of jellyfish through direct development of fertilized eggs. Most jellyfish are., The second stage of its life cycle, larval planula stage, after the first phase of egg and sperm Although this long stage jellyfish, is an important stage, when the fertilized egg there that have undergone embryonic development, hatch and planulae from the females mouth or brood bag on their own and

Although most jellyfish marine animals inhabit some fresh water. It is most often used for hydro-jellyfish (actually many hydrozoans inhabit freshwater). The best known example is a cosmopolitan freshwater jellyfish, Craspedacusta sowerbii. Some of the other populations of jellyfish have been limited in the lakes, such as jellyfish lake in Palau. Creeping small jellyfish and Staurocladia Elevter (see size above) does not know how to swim, and "walk" around. Fronds on algae or rocky soils on jellyfish tentacles Most hydro and scyphomedusae, which is in the coastal habitat at the bottom on a regular basis, where they can stop swimming for a while, and certain types of box jellyfish on the seabed in shallow water. Even some of the deep-sea species of jellyfish and hydro scyphomedusae of most or collected at the bottom.

1961, Osamu Shimomura extracted green fluorescent protein (GFP), and another bioluminescent protein, called aequorin, from the large and wealthy hydromedusa Aequorea Victoria, the lead while studying photoproteins bioluminescence in this species. Martin Chalfie figured out how to use GFP as a fluorescent marker genes inserted into other cells or organisms. Artificial GFP show typically a fluorescent label, in which cells or tissues express specific genes. Disable the nematocysts (stinging cells) prevents further injection of venom. Salt water is an option, if no vinegar. Ice or fresh water should be applied to the sting, as this may help the nematocysts toxins remain free
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