Minggu, 16 Desember 2012



The Biggest Animals Kingdom and in The World | Honey | Bees as a group appear to have their center of origin in South and Southeast Asia (including Brazil), as all but one (ie, Apis mellifera) of existing species are natives of the region. Note that most plesiomorphic living species (Apis florea and Apis andreniformis) is the center of origin there. Not Apis species existed in the New World, in human time before the introduction of Apis mellifera by Europeans. The close relatives of modern bees like bumblebees and stingless bees are also social to some degree, and social behavior seems a plesiomorphic trait that predates the origin of the genre. Among the existing members of Apis, the more basal species make single, exposed combs, while the more recently evolved species nest in cavities and have multiple combs, which has greatly facilitated their domestication.

Bees are now three clades. Count chromosomes of female bees for the three subtypes are Micrapis 2N = 16 and 2n = 16 Megapis, Apis 2N = 32. Drones of all species have a number of chromosomes 1N. The Apis genome was mapped. Workers and queens of results fertilized eggs and then have a mother and a father. A modified form of parthenogenesis controls sexual differentiation. The polymorphic allele and sex is over, and two different variants, there is a female bee. If both alleles are identical diploid sexual drones are produced. Bees detect and destroy the diploid drones after hatching. Queens normally partner drone flying over more than one coupling. As the number of sex alleles is limited - about 18 are known in Apis - there is a high probability that a queen mates with one or more alleles identical drones have sex with one of the alleles of the sex queen.

Two bee species, A. A. mellifera and Cerana indicates, are often maintained, fed, and transported by beekeepers. Modern hives also enable beekeepers to transport bees, moving from field to field as the crop needs pollinating and allowing the beekeeper to charge for the pollination services they provide, revising the historical role of the self beekeeper and encourage large scale commercial operations. In early 2007, abnormally high mortality (30-70% of hives) of European honey bee colonies occurred in North America, this decline seems unprecedented in recent history. Worker bees cluster around the queen at the center of the assembly, tremors, in order to keep the center between 27 ° C (81 ° F), early winter (during broodless) and 34 ° C (93 ° F) again places the queen. The worker bees rotate through the pool from the outside to the inside so that no bee gets too cold. During winter, they consume stored honey to produce body heat.

All living species of Apis have had their honey gathered by indigenous peoples for consumption, though for commercial purposes only Apis mellifera and Apis Cerana have been exploited to any degree. Honey is sometimes also gathered by humans from the nests of various stingless bees. In 1911, some farmers from bees that one liter of bees hovering represented about 48,000 miles to gather nectar to produce the pollen necessary for honey Propolis or propolis is created from resins, balsams and tree juices. The bee species that nest in tree cavities use propolis to seal cracks hive. Honey sexes: women (workers and queens), and men (or drones). In summary, there are three types of bees, drones and queens, workers, two sexes: male and female, and two castes queens of women and workers. All bees live in colonies where workers sting intruders as a form of defense, and alarmed bees will release a pheromone that stimulates the attack response in other bees. Different species of bees are distinguished from all other bee species (and virtually all other Hymenoptera) by the possession of small barbs on the sting, but these barbs are found only in the worker bees.

Despite common belief, is the only species of bees die after biting. This phenomenon is also used to kill a queen perceived as intruders or defective, an action known to beekeepers as balls of Regina, the name of the ball of bees formed. The details of the signaling used varies from species to species, for example, two smaller species and Apis florea Apis andreniformis, dancing on the top surface of the honeycomb, which is horizontal (not vertical, as in other species), and bees Worker orient the dance in the actual compass direction of the resource that you are taking.

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