Jumat, 06 Juli 2012



The Biggest Animals Kingdom and in The World | Bee | Bees play an important role in pollinating flowering plants, and are the major type of pollinators in ecosystems that contain flowering plants. Bees either focus on gathering nectar or pollen collection in line with demand, especially in social species. Bees collect nectar may accomplish pollination, but bees that are deliberately gathering pollen are more efficient pollinators.

Monoculture and the massive decline of many bee species (wild and domesticated) have increasingly caused honey bee keepers to become migratory so that bees can be concentrated in the seasonal variation in areas greater than the demand for pollination. Most bees are fuzzy and carry an electrostatic charge, which facilitates the adherence of pollen. Female bees periodically stop foraging and groom themselves to pack the pollen into the scopa, which is on the legs in most bees, and the ventral abdomen on others, and published in specialized pollen baskets on the legs of bees and their families.

A small number of plants produce nutritious floral oils rather than pollen, which is collected and used by bees oligolectic. A small subgroup of stingless bees, called "vulture bees", is specialized to feed on carrion, and these are the only bees that do not use plant products as food. In New Zealand scientists have discovered that three kinds of native bees have evolved to open flower buds of mistletoe native tetrapetala Peraxilla. Nowhere else in the world, the bees have demonstrated the ability to open explosives flowers adapted birds.

Visiting flowers can be dangerous business. Many bugs and crab spiders murderous hide in flowers to capture unwary bees. Other bees are lost to birds in flight. Insecticides used on blooming plants kill many bees, both by direct poisoning and contamination of the food they eat. The value of the fraction of bees depends partly on the effectiveness of individual bees, but also from the same population. Thus, while bumblebees have been found about ten times more efficient pollinators on cucurbits, the total return of a colony of bees is much greater because a larger number. other bee species, such as Mason bees are increasingly cultured and used to meet the pollination needs of agriculture.

Native pollinators include bumblebees and solitary bees, which often survive in refuge in wild areas away from agricultural spraying, but it can still be poisoned in massive spray programs for mosquitoes, moths, insects or other pests. The rules of the law of the United Kingdom in 1980, API has been designed to stop the decline of bees Bees, like ants, are a specialized form of wasp. The ancestors of bees were wasps in the family Crabronidae, and therefore predators of other insects. Recently reported bee fossil, Melittosphex example, is considered "an extinct lineage of pollen-collecting Apoidea sister to modern bees," and dates of Early Cretaceous (about 100 million years).

The first flowers were pollinated animal pollinated by insects such as beetles, so that the syndrome of insect pollination was well established before bees first appeared.  Among the groups of bees living, the "short-tongued" bee family Colletidae taxon has traditionally been considered more "primitive", and his sister for the rest of the bees. This subject is still under debate, and phylogenetic relationships among bee families are poorly understood. Bees may be solitary or live in different communities. The most advanced of these are eusocial colonies found among the bees, bumble bees and stingless bees. Sociality, of several types, is believed to have evolved separately many times within the bees.

There are many species of eusocial bees highly eusocial bees more primitive, but have rarely been studied. The vast majority are in the family Halictidae, or "sweat bees". The Most species have a single season colony cycle, even in the tropics, and only mated females (future queens, or "gynes") hibernate (called diapause). Some species have long active seasons and attain colony sizes in the hundreds. The orchid bees include a number of primitive eusocial species with similar biology. Some species of bees allodapine (carpenter bees relatives) also primitively eusocial colonies, with unusual levels of interaction between adult bees and brood in the developing world. This system is also visible in some bees and bumblebees.

Highly eusocial bees live in colonies. Each colony has one queen, many workers and, in certain phases of the colony cycle, drones. Bumblebees (Bombus terrestris, Bombus pratorum, et al.) The queen starts a nest on its own (unlike queens of honey bees and stingless bees which start nests by swarms in the company of a large labor force). Bumblebee colonies are generally 50 to 200 bees at peak population, which occurs in mid to late summer. Nest architecture is simple, limited by the size of the nest cavity (pre-existing), and colonies are rarely perennial. Bumblebee queens sometimes seek winter refuge in beehives, where they are sometimes found dead in the spring by beekeepers, said probably to death by bees.

Bees most other families, including species of bees, like carpenter bee eastern (Xylocopa virginica), alfalfa leafcutter bee (Megachile rotundata), orchard mason bee (Osmia lignaria) and hornfaced bee (Osmia cornifrons ) are solitary in the sense that every woman is fertile, and generally inhabits a nest she constructs. There are no worker bees for these species. Solitary bees usually produce no honey or beeswax. They are immune to the mites and Varroa mites, but have their own parasites, pests and diseases (see also bee diseases). Solitary bees are important pollinators, and pollen is collected to supply the nest with food for their offspring. Some solitary bees have very advanced types of pollen carrying structures on their bodies. A very few species of solitary bees are increasingly cultured for commercial pollination.

Solitary bees are often oligoleges, since only gather pollen from one or a few species or genera of plants, in contrast to bees and bumblebees which are generalists). There are known bees are nectar specialists oligolectic many bees will visit multiple plants for nectar, but there are no bees which visit only one plant for nectar while also gathering pollen from many different sources . Specialized pollinators also include bee species that gather floral oils instead of pollen, and male orchid bees, which gather aromatic compounds from orchids (one of the only cases where male bees are effective pollinators ). In very rare cases a single species of bee can effectively pollinate a plant species, and some plants are in danger, at least in part because their pollinator is dying.

Solitary bees create nests in hollow reeds or twigs, holes in wood, or, more commonly, in tunnels in the ground. A nest may consist of many cells. Provide nest boxes for solitary bees is increasingly popular for gardeners. Solitary bees are either stingless or very unlikely to sting (only in self defense, if ever). Large groups of solitary bee nests are called aggregations, to distinguish them from colonies. Cleptoparasitic bees, commonly called "cuckoo bees" because their behavior is similar to cuckoo birds, occur in several bee families, though the name is technically best applied to the subfamily Nomadinae APID. Females of these bees have no pollen gathering structures (broom), and they build their nests. typically enter the nests of pollen collecting species and lay their eggs in the cells indicated by the host bee.

When the cuckoo bee larva hatches it consumes pollen ball of the host larva, and if the kleptoparasite women have not already done so, kills and eats the host larva. In some cases where the hosts are social species, the kleptoparasite remains in the host nest and lays many eggs, sometimes even killing the host queen and replacing it. Cleptoparasitic many bees are closely related, and resemble, their hosts in looks and size, (ie, the Bombus subgenus Psithyrus, which are parasitic bumblebees that infiltrate nests of other species in the subgenera of Bombus). Others parasitize bees in different families, as a Townsendiella Nomadine ApID, a species in a Hesperapis kleptoparasite dasypodaid gender, while other birds and bees, which are generally halictid attack.

Four bee families (Andrenidae, Colletidae, Halictidae and Apidae) contain some species that are crepuscular (this may be the type of Vespertine or morning). This led to widespread belief, that bees "violate aerodynamic theory", but in reality it merely confirms that bees do not engage fixed-wing flight, and that their flight is explained by the mechanics, such as those used by helicopters. In 2005, Michael Dickinson and his Caltech colleagues studied honey bee flight with the help of high-speed cinematography and a giant robotic mock-up of a bee wing. Increased frequency of flapping wings with decreasing size of the genre, but as a flapping of bees covering a small flap of approximately 230 times per second, faster than a fly (200 times per second) which is 80 times smaller.

Journalist Bee Wilson states that the image of a community of bees "occurs from ancient to modern times, in Aristotle and Plato, Virgil and Seneca, in Erasmus and Shakespeare, Tolstoy, and by social theorists Bernard Mandeville and Karl Marx. Despite the pain of bee stings and the stereotype of insects as pests, bees are generally held in high esteem. Bees are one of the few insects used on advertisements frequently used to illustrate honey and foods made with honey (as Honey Nut Cheerios). In ancient Egypt, the bee was seen to symbolize the land of Lower Egypt, with Pharaoh being listed as "He who Sedge and Bee" (sedge represents Upper Egypt). Although a bee sting can be fatal for people with allergies, virtually all species of bees are not aggressive so quiet and many can not sting at all. Humans are often a greater danger to bees, how bees can be affected or injured by encounters with toxic chemicals in the environment (see also Bees and toxic chemicals).
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