Sabtu, 07 Juli 2012

Octopus

  
The Biggest Animals Kingdom and in The World | Octopus | Characterized by eight octopus arms, usually with suction cups. The arms of an octopus are often indistinguishable from the pair of feeding tentacles in squid and cuttlefish. Unlike most other cephalopods, the majority of octopuses - those in the suborder Incirrina most famous - have almost entirely soft bodies with no internal skeleton. Octopuses have a relatively short life expectancy, and some species live for only six months. Larger species such as Pacific Giant Octopus, may live for up to five years under suitable conditions. Octopuses have three hearts. Octopus blood containing the copper-rich protein keyhole limpet hemocyanin to the oxygen transport.


Octopuses draw water into their mantle cavity where it passes through the gills. As mollusks, octopuses have gills are finely divided and vascularized excrescences of either the outside or inside of the body surface. An octopus defense (primary) principal to hide or not to be seen, or are not recognized as an octopus. Octopuses have several secondary defenses (defenses they use once they were seen by a predator Most octopuses can remove a thick blackish ink in a large cloud to help escape predators. This ink cloud is thought to increase the efficiency of the olfactory organs, an octopus evading predators that use scent for hunting, such as sharks help reduce. Clouds ink some species can serve as pseudomorphs or baits that the predator attack, instead


An octopus's camouflage is aided by certain specialized skin cells which the natural color, opacity, and reflectiveness of the epidermis can change. Other color-changing cells are reflective iridophores and leucophores (white). This ability to change color can also be used to communicate with or to alert other octopus. The highly poisonous blue-ringed octopus becomes bright yellow with blue rings when provoked. Octopuses can use muscles in the skin to the texture of his robe to change to achieve a greater camouflage. In some species the anatomy of the skin is limited to a patternless masks for color and texture of the skin limited. It is thought that octopuses that are day-active and / or live in complex habitats such as coral reefs are more complex skin than their nocturnal and / or relatives living sand evolved.


When under attack, some may octopus arm autotomy similar way to perform the skinks other lizards and their tails. Some species, such as Mimic Octopus, have a fourth defense mechanism. When octopuses reproduce, males use a special arm called hectocotylus for spermatophores (packets of sperm) to insert into the female's mantle cavity. The hectocotylus in benthic octopuses is usually the third right arm. In some species, the female octopus sperm of her life to keep for a week until the eggs are mature. The female cares for the eggs, protecting them against predators, and gently blowing currents of water on them to get enough oxygen.

The young larval octopuses spend a period of time drifting clouds of plankton, where they feed on copepods, larval crabs and larval starfish until they are ready to descend to the ocean floor, where the cycle repeats. This is a dangerous time for the octopus larvae in plankton cloud they are vulnerable to plankton eaters. Octopuses have keen eyesight. Octopus, like other cephalopods, can the polarization of light. Color vision seems to vary from species to species, Octopus in Aegina, but absent in Octopus vulgaris. An autonomic response keeps the octopus eyes that the pupil slit is always horizontal.


Octopuses also have an excellent sense of touch. An octopus suction cups are equipped with chemoreceptors so that the octopus can taste what he's playing. The arms contain tension sensors so that the octopus knows whether the arms are extended. The octopus has a very poor proprioceptive sense. Receptors are not sufficient tension to position the body of the squid brain or the arms to determine the squid. Processing input proprioceptive) As result, octopus has gnosis stereo, ie do not form a mental image of the object in general handling. Octopuses seem little response. Bottom-dwelling octopuses eat mainly crabs, polychaete worms and other molluscs such as whelks and clams. In the open ocean octopuses eat cephalopods, mainly fish, shrimps and others.

The "octopus" is the term ὀκτάπους Greek (oktapous, "eight feet"), with traditional plural "octopuses" (pronounced / ɒktəpʊsɪz /) English grammar and "octopodes" (pronounced / ɒktɒpədi ː z /) in Greek. The term "octopod" (plural "octopuses" or "octopodes") comes from the taxonomic order Octopoda but has no classical equivalent. The collective plural "octopus" is usually reserved for animals consumed as food. Some authorities believe that the octopus is an overcorrection reprehensible, feeling that the form arose from the incorrect assumption that "Octopus" is a second declension Latin form. However, "Octopus" is a Latin noun inflection scientific third with a plurality of octopodes. However, the Oxford English Dictionary (2008 draft revision) returns "octopus" "Octopus" and "octopodes" (in that order), the label "octopodes" 'rare' and the fact that "octopuses" is derived from the misconception that the octopus is a second declension Latin noun.


Modern English Fowler Report states that "the only acceptable plural in English is" octopuses "," that "octopus" is "incorrect" and "octopodes" 'pedantic'. The descriptive Merriam-Webster Collegiate Dictionary 11 are "octopus" and "octopus", in that order, also, Webster's New World College Dictionary lists of "octopus" order "octopus" and "octopodes. The octopuses were often depicted in art of the Moche people of ancient Peru, who loved the sea and its animals.
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