Jumat, 13 Juli 2012



The Biggest Animals Kingdom and in The World | Elephant | Elephant and its variations are archaic spellings elephant. Besides elephants, is the word used to refer to ivory, elephant tusks, musical horns made of elephant tusks, or horns like a musical instrument like. The French word owes something to both Old High German olbenta "camel", and Latin elephantus "elephant", a word of Greek origin. The African Elephant genus contains two species and those species of the Asian elephant is the only remaining member of the Asian Elephant genus, but can be divided into four subspecies. The African and Asian elephants diverged from a common ancestor about 7.6 million years ago.

African elephants, two finger-shaped projections on the end of the stem, while the Asians have only one. Elephant's trunk is sensitive enough to pick up a single blade of grass, yet strong enough to rip branches of a tree. Most herbivores (plant eaters, like the elephant) possess teeth adapted for tearing and cutting plant material. However, except for children or sick, elephants always use their trunks to tear up their food and place it in your mouth. If the desired food is too high, the elephant wraps its trunk around the tree or branch and shake its food loose or sometimes simply to precipitate the tree altogether. Elephants suck water up the trunk to 14 liters (15 liters) at a time and then blow in the mouth. Elephants also strive for the water to spray on their body when bathing. Elephants greet family interwoven their tribes, like a handshake.

can defend very well by waving their trunks to prevent unwanted intruders or by grasping and throwing. An elephant is also dependent on the strain to his highly developed sense of smell. Some elephants have been plagued with floppy trunk syndrome. The tusks of an elephant, the second upper incisors. Tusks grow continuously, tusks of adult males grow to about 18 cm (7 inches) per year. Like people, mostly from the right or left, elephants are usually right and left canines. Both male and female African elephants have large tusks that can reach over 3 m (10 ft) long and weigh over 90 kg (200 €). In the Asian species, only males have large tusks. Female Asians have tusks which are very small or absent.

The desire for elephant ivory is an important factor in reducing the elephant population in the world. Elephants are colloquially called pachyderms (from their original scientific classification), which means thick-skinned animals. The skin of an elephant is very difficult for most of his body and measures about 2.5 centimeters (1.0 inches) thick.  Flounder is an important behavior in elephant society. Although tough, an elephant's skin is very sensitive. Without regular mud baths to protect against sunburn, but also insect bites and moisture loss, the skin of an elephant suffering from severe damage. After bathing, the elephant uses its trunk is usually the ground to blow on his body to help dry and bake on its new protective layer.

Revolve also helps the skin in regulating body temperature. The elephants have difficulty releasing heat through the skin, because in proportion to body size, have very little. The mass ratio of an elephant to the skin surface is many times that a human being. The elephants have also been observed by increasing the legs to the soles of the feet to expose, probably in an attempt to more skin exposed to the air. Since wild elephants live in very warm climates, they need another way of getting rid of excess heat. The legs of an elephant are about the form of columns or pillars, as they should be in support of its mass. The elephant has less muscle strength to stand because of the straight legs and big feet are filled. Indian elephants, on the contrary, often lie.

The feet of an elephant are nearly round. African elephants have three nails on each hind foot and four on each front foot. Indian elephants have four nails on each hind foot and five on each front foot.  Under the weight of the elephant, the waves of the foot, but decreases when the weight is removed. An elephant can sink into the mud, but could easily pull his leg, because the feet become smaller when they are raised Elephants swim well, but can not trot, canter or jump. No "air phase", the fastest pace does not meet all performance criteria, such as elephants always have at least one foot on the ground. However, an elephant moving fast uses its legs as many other animals which are exported, with the hips and shoulders falling and then rising, while the feet on the ground. In this step an elephant ten feet above the ground at once.  The tests at the Thai Elephant Conservation Centre will be given to the fast-moving elephants' run 'to show the front legs but walk' with the rear legs.

In tests at the Thai Elephant Conservation Center, the fastest elephants reached a top speed of 18 km / h (11 mph).  Spring-kinetic, such as may explain the difference between the movement of elephants and other animals. Large ears flapping of an elephant are also very important for the regulation of temperature. Elephant ears are made of a thin layer of skin over cartilage and dense network of blood vessels. On hot days, elephants fighting their ears constantly, creating a slight breeze.  The differences in size ears of African elephants and Asian countries can be explained partly by their geographical distribution.  Asians live farther north in cooler climates, and thus have smaller ears. If an elephant wants to intimidate a predator or rival, it will spread your ears wide as a more solid and impressive.  Joyce Poole, a well known elephant researcher, has theorized that the males fanning their ears in an attempt to help propel this "elephant Cologne" large distances Elephants live in a structured social order. The social life of male and female elephants are very different.

Adult men, on the other hand, usually live solitary life. The social circle of the female elephant does not stop at the small family.  When a group is too large, a part of the older daughters break off and form their own group of small size. The life of the adult male is very different.  While men live solitary lives in the first place, sometimes the form of free association with other males. These groups are called bachelor herds. The men spend much more time than women who fight for dominance with each other. Only the most dominant males will be allowed to mate with females in cycling. During the mating season, the battles are extremely aggressive, and occasionally an elephant wounded.  With a mass just over 5 kg (11 lb), elephant brains are larger than those of any other land animal.

A wide range of behaviors associated with intelligence are attributed to elephants, including those associated with pain, making music, art, altruism, allomothering, play, use of tools, compassion and self-awareness. The elephant is supposed to belong equally to the field of intelligence in cetaceans and nonhuman primates. The elephant brain is similar to that of humans in terms of structure and complexity, the brains of the elephant has a gyral pattern more complex and numerous convolutes, or folds of the brains, those of humans, primates or carnivores, but less complex than cetaceans.


Elephants do a number of sounds during the communication. Elephants are known for their great fanfare, that are created when the animal breathes through his nostrils.  Elephants have also rumble growls when saying goodbye.  Elephants can communicate over long distances by producing and receiving low frequency sound (infrasound), a sub-sonic rumbling which can travel through the air and the ground much further than higher frequencies.  The elimination presumably increase the ground contact and the sensitivity of the remaining legs. Pioneering research in elephant infra sound communication was done by Katy Payne, of the Elephant Listening Project, and is described in her book Silent Thunder.  Joyce Poole has also begun to decode elephant expressions that are included in many years of observation, in the hope of a lexicon based on a systematic catalog of elephant sounds.
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