Kamis, 12 Juli 2012



The Biggest Animals Kingdom and in The World | Scorpion | Scorpions are found in all major land masses except Antarctica. The greatest diversity of scorpions in the Northern Hemisphere found in subtropical areas that lie between latitudes 23 ° N and 38 ° N. Above these latitudes, diversity decreases with the presence north of the northern scorpion scorpions are Paruroctonus Borea at 50 ° N. Five colonies of scorpions (Euscorpius flavicaudis) have been established in Sheerness on the Isle of Sheppey in the UK.

This species of scorpion is small and completely harmless to humans. This marks the northernmost limit of the world where scorpions live in the wild Scorpions have been found in many fossil finds, including marine Silurian deposits, coal seams of the Carboniferous Period and in amber. The oldest known scorpions lived about 430 million years ago in the Silurian period, at the bottom of shallow tropical seas. These early scorpions had gills instead of lungs folding forms. Currently, 111 species of fossil scorpions are known. Unusually for arachnids, there are more species of Paleozoic to Mesozoic scorpions or Cenozoic.

Scorpions have quite variable life and the actual duration of most species is unknown. Scorpions prefer to live in areas where the temperature range 20 to 37 ° C (68 to 99 ° F) but can survive temperatures ranging from below freezing to desert heat. Scorpions Scorpiops kind of life in the high mountains of Asia, scorpions and small scorpions from Patagonia bothriurid Euscorpius Central Europe can survive winter temperatures of about -25 ° C (-13 ° F). In Repetek (Turkmenistan), seven species of live scorpions (which is endemic birulai Pectinibuthus) at temperatures ranging from -31 to 50 ° C (-24 to 122 ° F).

Scorpions have a photophobic behavior, especially to avoid detection by predators such as birds, centipedes, lizards, mice, weasels and rats. Scorpions are opportunistic predators of small arthropods, although the larger species have been known to kill lizards and mice. Depending on the toxicity of their venom and size of their claws, then either crush the prey or inject neurotoxic venom. In this way, kill or paralyze their prey so the scorpion can eat. Scorpions have an unusual style of eating with the chelicerae, small claw like structures protruding from the mouth, which are unique to the Chelicerata among arthropods. Scorpions can eat food in liquid form, have external digestion Any indigestible solid material (skin, exoskeleton, etc) is trapped by the mushrooms in the pre-oral cavity, which is expelled by the scorpion.

Scorpions can consume enormous amounts of food in one sitting. This allows the scorpions to survive long periods of deprivation of food, some are able to survive 6 to 12 months of starvation. Scorpions excrete very little, its waste is composed mainly of insoluble nitrogenous compounds such as xanthine, guanine and uric acid. Most scorpions reproduce sexually, and most species have males and females. However, some species such as Hottentotta hottentotta, caboverdensis Hottentotta, australasiae Liocheles, Tityus columbianus, Tityus metuendus, Tityus serrulatus, Tityus stigmurus, Tityus trivittatus, and Tityus urugayensis, reproduce by parthenogenesis, a process in which unfertilized eggs become in live embryos.  Sexual reproduction takes place the transfer of a spermatophore from the male to the female scorpions possess a complex courtship and mating ritual to effect this transfer.

The courtship ritual can involve several other behaviors such as vibration, and a kiss quelicerales, in which the male chelicerae - clips - grab the female is a smaller, more intimate version of the man who is grasping pedipalps of the female and in some cases injecting a small amount of poison in his pedipalp or on the edge of its carapace, probably as a means of pacifying the female. When the male has identified a suitable location, the spermatophore is deposited and then the female guide in her. If mating goes on for too long, the female may lose interest, lack of progress. Once mating is complete, the male and female separate. The male usually removed quickly, most likely to avoid being devoured by the female, although sexual cannibalism is common with the scorpions. Unlike most species of spider class, which are oviparous, scorpions seem to be universally viviparous.

The young generally resemble their parents. Progress in the development of a scorpion is measured in steps (voice suffered). Scorpions typically require between five and seven suits to reach maturity. The scorpion then emerges from this division, the pedipalps and legs are first removed from the exoskeleton, followed eventually by the metasoma. When a new scorpion exoskeleton is soft, making the scorpion highly vulnerable to attacks. The hardening process is called sclerotherapy. All known species of scorpion possess venom and use it primarily to kill or paralyze their prey so that it can be consumed, in general, is fast acting, which allows effective capture prey. The 1000 + known species of scorpions, only 25 have a deadly poison to humans, most people who belong to the family Buthidae.
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