Rabu, 11 Juli 2012

Horse

 

The Biggest Animals Kingdom and in The World | Horse | Depending on the breed, management and the environment, the modern domestic horse has a life expectancy of 25 to 30 years. In modern times, Sugar Puff, who had been listed in the Guinness Book of Records as the oldest horse in the living world, died in 2007 at age 56. The English-speaking world measures the height of horses in hands and inches: on the one hand equals 4 inches (101.6 mm). Great riding horses usually start at about 15.2 hands (62 inches, 157 cm) and often are as tall as 17 hands (68 inches, 173 cm), weight from 500 to 600 kilograms (1,100 to 1,300 pounds). Heavy or draft horses tend to be at least 16 hands (64 inches, 163 cm) tall and can be as high as 18 hands (72 inches, 183 cm) tall.


The largest horse in recorded history was probably a Shire horse named Mammoth, born in 1848. The current record for the world's smallest horse is Thumbelina, a fully mature miniature horse affected by dwarfism. She is 17 inches (43 cm) tall and weighs 57 pounds (26 kg) Foals are taxonomically the same animals horses. The distinction between a horse and a pony is commonly done on the basis of height, especially for competition. However, height alone is not determinative, the difference between horses and ponies may also include aspects of the phenotype, including the conformation and temperament. The traditional rule of the height of a horse or pony at maturity is 14.2 hands (58 inches or 147 cm).

 

In Australia, the horses are considered less than 14 hands (56 inches, 142 cm), for competition in the Western Division of the United States Equestrian Federation, the limit is 14.1 hands (57 inches, 145 cm) Federation Equestre Internationale, body global governance of sport for the horse, use the metric system and defines a colt as a horse of less than 148 centimeters (58.27 inches) at withers without shoes, a little 'more than 14, 2 h, and 149 centimeters ( 58.66 inches), or a little over an hour and a half 14.2, with the shoes. Records of the breed of horses that normally make people, both under and over 14.2 h in all animals of this breed of horses, regardless of height Conversely, certain breeds of horses may have features in common with horses, and individuals may occasionally mature at over 14.2 h, but is still considered ponies.


On the contrary, the races, such as Falabella and other miniature horses, which may be not higher than 30 inches (76 cm), are classified according to their data, such as very young horses, ponies not. Horses have a wide range of coat colors and distinctive signs, described by a specialized vocabulary. Often, a horse is classified first coat color, race or sex before. The horses of the same color can be distinguished from one another by white spots, which, together with different localization models are inherited separately from the color of the coat. Many genes that create the horse coat colors and patterns were identified.
Horses that have a layer of white are often incorrectly, a horse that looks "white" is usually gray, middle-aged or older. The only white horses are born with a proper predominantly white coat and pink skin, rare. Different genetic and independently capable of producing white color coat in horses, including several different alleles of dominant white and Sabino-1 gene. However, there is "albino" is defined as horses that have pink skin and red eyes. The horses are early varieties, and foals are able to be productive in a short time after birth.


The horses, ponies, in particular, are sometimes physically able to breed at 18 months, but domestic horses are rarely allowed to breed before the age of three years, women in particular. Horses four years old are considered mature, although the skeleton continues to develop normally until the age of six years, the aging also depends on the size of the horse race, gender and quality of care. Larger horses have large bones, therefore, not only the bones take longer to form the bone tissue, but the epiphyseal plates are larger and longer in the conversion of bone cartilage.

Although Thoroughbred race horses are put on the track just two years in some countries, horses specifically bred for sports such as dressage are generally not put a saddle until three or four years, because bones and muscles are not solidly developed. For endurance riding competition, horses are not considered mature enough to compete up to a total of 60 calendar months (five years) of age. The senses of the horse are generally superior to those of a human being.  This means that horses have a visual field of more than 350 °, with about 65 degrees of binocular vision of being and remaining 285 ° monocular vision. Horses have a great day and night vision, but have two color, or dichromatic vision, color vision is something like red-green color blindness in humans, in certain colors, the colors, especially red, and the like, appear as a shade green.


The sense of a horse of touch is highly developed. Horses feel as thin as a contact insect landing anywhere in the body. Horses usually do not eat poisonous plants. However, there are exceptions, and occasionally horses eat toxic amounts of poisonous plants, although not enough healthy foods. Gallop averages 40 to 48 km / h (25 to 30 mph), but the world record for a horse galloping in a short sprint is 88 km / h (55 mph). In addition to these basic steps, some horses do a jump stop, instead of trot. Often wandering Aires genetic in some breeds, known collectively as gaited horses. Often replace gaited horses to trot, with an air of wandering. Horses are prey animals with a strong fight or flight. The most light horse riding breeds were developed for speed, agility, quickness and strength, natural qualities that extend from their wild ancestors. However, through selective breeding, some breeds are very docile horses, horses towing especially true. Horses are herd animals, with a clear hierarchy of rank, led by a dominant individual, usually a mare.


Many horses will be difficult to manage if they are isolated, but with training, the horses can learn to accept a human as a mate, and then be comfortable away from other horses. The studies assessed the intelligence of horses in the areas of problem solving, speed of learning and retention of knowledge. The results show that horses are able to learn simple, but are also able to solve problems involving advanced cognitive categorization and concept learning. Recent studies also suggest the horses are able to say whether the amount is less than four. Domestic horses tend to face greater mental challenges that the wild horses, because they live in artificial environments that discourage instinctive behavior, and learning tasks that are not natural, horses are creatures of habit that respond and adapt well to the regulations, and meet best when routines and techniques are used consistently.

Other horses that regularly deal in mind that personality may also play an independent role of intelligence to determine how individual animals respond to different experiences Horses are able to sleep both standing and lying. Horses sleep better when in groups because some animals to sleep, while others stand guard to see predators. A horse kept alone will not sleep well because its instincts are to keep a constant eye to the dangers. Unlike humans, horses do not sleep in a period of solid, uninterrupted time, but take many short breaks. The average waiting time of a domestic horse that is 2.9 hours per day. The horses must rest to reach the REM sleep.  This condition differs from narcolepsy, though horses may also suffer from this disorder.


Sometimes the horses are correctly or incorrectly called "pure blood". Thoroughbred horse racing is a specification, while a "pure race" is a horse (or any other animal) with a pedigree recognized by the definition of a race record. Breeds are groups of horses with distinctive features that are transmitted consistently to their children, such as shape, color, performance capacity, or disposition. The horses were selected because their domestication. A prime example of people who practice selective breeding of horses were Bedouins, who had a reputation of care practices, keeping extensive pedigrees of their Arabian horses and placing great value bloodlines pure. Other breeds of horses developed specifically for agricultural work in the light of the road car business, sports, or simply as pets.


One of the earliest formal registries was General Stud Book Thoroughbred, started in 1791 and again the foundation of thoroughbred horse racing. There are over 300 breeds of horses in the world today. Throughout the world, horses play a role in human cultures, and have done so for millennia. The horses used for leisure, sports, and business purposes. It is estimated that 9.5 million horses in the United States. The American Horse Council estimates that in relation to the horse, the activities have a direct impact on the U.S. economy over $ 39 million dollars, and when indirect costs are considered, the impact is more than $ 102 billion in 2004, a "poll" conducted by Animal Planet, over 50,000 viewers from 73 countries voted for the horse as a beast of a favorite room in the world.


Sometimes the horses are mounted without a saddle, and sometimes the horses are trained to perform without bridle or other headgear. Many horses are also guided, which requires a wiring harness, bridle, and a certain type of vehicle The horses are grazing animals, and their main source of nutrients is of good quality hay or pasture forage.  Although horses are adapted to live outside, needing protection against wind and precipitation, which can vary from a simple shed or shelter to an elaborate stable. If horses are kept in a barn, requires regular daily exercise for their physical and mental wellbeing. Regular grooming is also useful to help the horse maintain good health of the hair and the skin.
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