Kamis, 02 Agustus 2012



The Biggest Animals Kingdom and in The World | Dugong | The word "dugong" derives from the Tagalog term dugong which was in turn borrowed from Malay Duyung, and means "lady of the sea". Other common names include the local "sea cow", "dolphin" and "sea camel". Dugong dugon Dugongidae only surviving species of the family, and one of four extant species of the order Sirenia, the other the formation of a manatee family. Dugongs and elephants share a monophyletic group of hyraxes, and anteater, a first branch of eutherians. There are fossils of other members of Dugongidae Molecular studies were done on populations of dugongs using mitochondrial DNA. Australia has two distinct maternal lines, one of which contains a dugong from Africa and Arabia.

Dugongs are in the warm waters of the western sea coast of the Pacific Ocean on the east coast of Africa, about 140,000 km (86.992 miles) of coast between 26 ° and 27 ° degrees north and south of the equator. Dugong is the only strictly herbivorous mammals, as well as all types of manatees using fresh water to a certain extent. Dugong populations exist in water from 37 countries and territories. At the end of 1960, the herd of 500 dugongs were observed off the coast of East Africa and nearby islands.

On theb of the Red Sea is home to large populations numbering in the hundreds, and similar populations are deemed to exist on the west side. In 1980 it was estimated, could not be more than 4000 dugongs in Red Sea. Persian Gulf, has the second largest dugong population in the world, occupying most of the southern coast, and the current population is believed to be about 7500. A very isolated population exists in the Gulf of Kutch, the only remaining population in western India. It is 1,500 kilometers (932 miles) from the population in the Gulf, and 1,700 km (1056 miles) from the nearest population in India.  small population exists around the Nansei Shoto Islands, and the population of pre-existing with Taiwan. Population in danger of not more than 50 dugongs survives around Okinawa A small population in south China, around the island of Hainan. 

Gulf of Thailand is also used to have a large population, but were not observed in the western part of the bay, and the population in the East is very small. Dugongs are believed to exist in the Straits of Johor in very small quantities. The waters around the island of Borneo to support a small population, with more scattered around the Malay archipelago. Population exists in the archipelago of the Solomon Islands and New Caledonia, which extends to the western population in Vanuatu. This is an isolated population living around the islands of Palau.

Australia is home to the largest population, which extends from Shark Bay in Western Australia to Moreton Bay in Queensland. The population of Shark Bay is considered stable with more than 10,000 dugongs. Smaller populations along the coast, including Ashmore Reef. A large number of dugongs living north of the Northern Territory, with a population over 20,000 in the Gulf of Carpentaria alone. The Great Barrier Reef provides important feeding areas for the species, this barrier is part of a stable population of about 10,000, although the concentration of the population has changed over time. Large bay on the north coast of Queensland provide significant habitat of dugongs in the southern Moreton Bay and Hervey Bay. Dugongs are usually found in warmer waters along the coast with many concentrated in the large bays and surface protection.

Deep water can provide a thermal refuge from cooler waters near the coast during the winter. Dugongs are long lived, and the old sample recorded under the age of 73. A large number of infectious and parasitic diseases affect dugongs. 30% of dugong deaths in Queensland in 1996, believed to be due to illness. Meeting hundreds of dugongs sometimes occur, but they last only for a short period of time. Because they are shy and do not approach people, little is known about dugong behavior. Dugongs are semi-nomadic way of life, often traveling long distances in search of food, but stay within a certain range of his life. Dugong movements mainly occur in a localized area of sea grass beds and animals of the same region show the individualistic model of the movement.

In areas where there is a great tide, dugongs to travel downstream to access areas of shallow power. In Moreton Bay dugongs move frequently between feeding grounds in the Gulf and the ocean waters warm. At high latitudes, dugongs make seasonal trips to reach the warm waters in winter. Sometimes dugongs to travel long distance for many days, and can overcome the deep ocean waters. Even if they are sea creatures, dugongs are known to be at a distance of 2.7 km (1.7 miles) to the streams, and in one case the dugong was captured at 15 kilometers (9.3 miles), the stream near Cooktown Dugongs reach sexual maturity between eight to eighteen years older than most other mammals. There is evidence that men lose their fertility of dugongs in the elderly.

Mating behavior varies among populations located in different areas. In some populations, males establish a territory of females in heat will be visiting. Women give birth after 13-15 months of pregnancy, usually only one calf. The birth takes place in very shallow waters, with the known cases in which mothers were almost on the beach. Newborns are already 1.2 meters (4 feet) long and weigh about 30 kilograms (66 pounds). For the population to remain stable, 95 percent of the adult population to survive in a period of one year. Estimated percentage of women can kill people without depleting the population is 1-2%. Even under the best conditions of the population is unlikely to increase by over 5% a year, leaving the dugong vulnerable to over exploitation.

Survey of dugongs and consequences of human activities on them has been limited, mainly occurs in Australia. In many countries, dugong numbers have not even been examined. Regional cooperation is important in relation to a wide distribution of animals, and in 1998 there was strong support for South-East Asian cooperation to protect the dugong. Kenya has approved a law banning the hunting of dugongs and restriction of trawling, but the dugong is listed in the law of Kenya's wildlife, endangered species. Mozambique was a law on protection of dugongs in 1955, but not effectively implemented. United Arab Emirates banned the hunting of dugongs in the waters, as well as Bahrain.

India and Sri Lanka to ban the hunting and sale of dugongs and their products. Japan has listed dugongs in the Red Book, and banned the deliberate killing and intimidation. Palau law to protect the dugong, even if it is not controlled and poaching continues. Dugong is the national animal of Papua New Guinea, which prohibits all hunting, but traditional. Vanuatu and New Caledonia, the prohibition of hunting dugongs. Dugongs are protected in Australia, although the rules vary by state, in some areas of indigenous hunting is allowed. Dugongs are listed under the Nature Conservation Act, in the Australian state of Queensland as vulnerable. Most live in marine parks already established, where the boat should be performed at a limited speed and limited fishing nets
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