Sabtu, 27 April 2013

Emperor Penguin


The Biggest Animals Kingdom and in The World | Emperor Penguin | The adult Emperor Penguin stands up to 110-130 cm (43-51 inches). Weight varies depending on the season, such as the considerable body of men and female penguins lose while increasing incubation eggs and larvae. A male emperor penguin cold Antarctic for more than two months to resist protect their eggs against extreme cold. most male penguins lose about 12 kg (26 lb), while they wait for their babies to hatch., the average weight of the men at the beginning of the breeding season is 38 kg (84 pounds) and females is 29.5 kg (65 lb). According the breeding season this drops to 23 kg (51 pounds) for both sexes. Like all penguin species, the Emperor has a streamlined body to minimize drag while swimming, and wings that have become stiff flat fins. The adult has deep black dorsal feathers on the head, chin, throat, back, dorsal fin and tail. The black plumage is clearly delineated plumage elsewhere. Emperor Penguin chick is typically covered with silver-gray down and a black head and white mask. Chicks weigh about 315 g (11 oz) after hatching and nest when they reach approximately 50% of adult weight The emperor penguin dark brown plumage fades from November to February, before the annual moult in January and February. Emperor Penguin feathers emerge from the skin after they will grow to a third of its total length, and before old feathers lost, to help reduce heat loss.

The average annual growth rate of survival of emperor penguins was measured at 95.1%, with an average life expectancy of 19.9 years. The Emperor Penguin breeds in the coldest temperatures of the birds of the air environment can reach -40 ° C (-40 ° F) and the wind speed can reach 144 kmh (89 mph). Water temperature is a frigid -1.8 ° C (28.8 ° F), which is much lower than the average body temperature Emperor Penguin 39 ° C (102 ° F). Species have adapted in different ways to meet the heat loss. This prevents the fat layer mobility emperor on earth resulting from its cousin less insulating fat, the Magellanic penguin. With around 100 feathers per square inch (15 feathers per cm 2) has the highest density of bird feathers. An additional layer of isolation of individual trees with flexible filaments between feathers and skin made. Cleaning should facilitate isolation and keep oily and waterproof feathers in its vital The Emperor Penguin is able to regulate the temperature (to maintain body temperature) without its metabolism in a wide temperature range. At temperatures above 20 ° C (68 ° F) temperatures, emperor penguin can be excited that his body temperature and increase the metabolic rate to increase heat loss.

The Emperor Penguin has a circumpolar distribution in the Antarctic almost exclusively between the 66 ° and 77 ° south latitude. breeding colonies are usually in areas where ice cliffs and icebergs present in the windshield, the total population is estimated at 400,000 to 450,000 spread over a maximum of 40 independent colonies. About 80,000 pairs breed in the region of the Great Sea breeding colony at Cape Ross Washington (20,000-25,000 pairs), Coulman Island in Victoria Land (around 22,000 pairs), Halley Bay, Coats Land (14.300 -31.400 pairs) and Atka Bay in Queen Maud Land (16,000 pairs). The Emperor Penguin is a social animal in its nesting behavior and feeding birds and can coordinate their diving and surfaces. The American physiologist Gerry Kooyman revolutionized the study of penguin foraging behavior in 1971 when it released its results for the automatic recording devices connect emperor penguins diving. Species found at a depth of 265 meters (869 feet) obtained with the immersion time of 18 minutes. Other studies of the behavior of diving birds showed regular dives to 150 m (490 ft) in the water about 900 meters (3000 feet) deep dives under 50 m (160 ft), interspersed with deep dives, depth of 400 meters (1300 feet) depth 450-500 m (1480-1600 m). This was suggestive of feeding near or at the bottom of the sea The male and female Emperor Penguins forage for food up to 500 kilometers (311 miles) from colonies while collecting food to feed the chickens, ranging from 82 to 1.454 km (51-903 miles) per trip .

An efficient swimmer, the Emperor Penguin exerts pressure with both its upward movement and down while swimming. Like all penguins Emperor Penguin flightless.The is a powerful bird. As a protection against the cold, a colony of Emperor penguins form a compact group (also known as the turtle formation) ranging in size from ten to several hundred birds, each bird leaning on a neighbor. The emperor penguin predators include birds and aquatic mammals. Giant Petrel (Macronectes giganteus) is the predominant land predator of chicks, responsible for nearly 34% of deaths of chicken in some colonies, but often dead penguins are properly cleaned. The known aquatic predators are mammals: leopard (Hydrurga leptonyx), which takes adult birds and birds shortly after entering the water and whale (Orcinus orca), which takes adult birds.

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