Senin, 18 Februari 2013

Tasmanian Devil


The Biggest Animals Kingdom and in The World | Tasmanian Devil | The Tasmanian devil is the largest surviving carnivorous marsupial. Unusually for a marsupial, its forelegs are slightly longer than the hind legs, and the devil, to 13 km / h (8.1 mph) for short distances. Current indications are that the devil is most active at dusk, and it is believed that the attack biting on smaller areas of the body such as the battle between devils often leads to a concentration of scarring in the region to develop. Males are generally larger than females, with an average head and body length of 652 mm (25.7 inches), a 258 mm (10.2 in.) rear and an average weight of 8 kg (pounds 18). Women have a cup and an average length of 570 mm (22 in.), 244 mm (9.6 in) tail and an average weight of 6 kg (13 lb), although the demons in the west Tasmania tend small lake. Devils five toes on their long front legs, and the four before leaving the page that contains the devil can eat. The Devils have a stocky center of gravity relatively low. Devils are mature in two years, and some demons live more than five years in the wilderness.

Devil body stores fat in its tail, and healthy devils have fat tails. The external thread has a external testes bag structure. The Tasmanian devil has a very strong bite for its size, creating a force of more than 553 N (124 lbf). The teeth and jaws of Tasmanian devils resemble those of hyenas, an example of convergent evolution. Like all dasyurids the devil prominent canines and molars. The devil has long claws which they burrow underground and find food easily and provide strong grip prey or colleagues. Teeth the claws of the devil to attack wombats up to 30 kg (66 pounds) of weight. The wide neck and forebody that give the devil its strength also this effect can be biased towards the front half of the body is wrong, clumsy gait of the devil wrote this.  The devil. Long whiskers on its face and in groups at the top of the head These help the devil locate prey in the dark in search of food and help to detect when other devils are close during feeding . The devil, unlike other marsupials, a "well-defined saddle ectotympanic" one. Since devils hunt at night, their vision seems to be strongest in black and white.

Devils in all habitats on the island of Tasmania, including the outskirts of urban areas and the mainland of Tasmania and Iceland Robbins (who Tasmania connected to the mainland at low tide) will be distributed. The "critical habitat" the devil "low to moderate rainfall in the east and north-west Tasmania." Like its Tasmanian devils particularly like dry sclerophyll forests and coastal forests. Devils prefer open Hochwald and dry up the rainforest. they are also narrow roads where roadkill is widely found, even if these devils often killed by vehicles when picking the carcasses. The devil is recorded directly on the hard Dasyurotaenia a tapeworm as threatened under the protection of rare species of Tasmania Act 1995 and related. The Tasmanian Devil is a nocturnal and crepuscular hunter, spending the days in dense bush or in a hole. Young devils are primarily crepuscular. Young devils can climb trees, but this becomes more difficult as they grow. Devils that. But maturing shrubs reach a height of 4 meters (13.1 feet) to climb, and a tree to 7 m (25 ft) to climb if it is not vertical Devils adults, young devils eat when they are hungry, then this behavior can rise to an adaptation of the young devils to escape. Devils can also swim and were seen crossing rivers, are 50 meters (160 feet) in width, including icy obviously happy

Tasmanian devils are not sheep, but only to spend most of their time once weaned. Tasmanian Devils in Narawntapu National Park with collars have proximity sensors that recorded their interactions with other daemons few months there low from February to June 2006. appeared that all the devils part of a vast network of contacts were characterized by male-female interactions during the breeding season, whereas female-female interactions were more frequent other times, although the frequency and not significantly contact between seasons. Previously thought to fight for food, men rarely interact with other males. then all the devils in one part of the region a social network. example, a greater mass of the devil occupy an area specific territorial animals, without conflict. Tasmanian devils instead occupy a vital area. During a period of two to four weeks to be devils habitats estimated 27.4 km2 (990 hectares and 6700) vary by an average of 13 km2 (3200 ha). Devils three or four dens regularly Dense vegetation near streams, pollen, thick grass and caves used as places. Devils adults use the same burrows for life. Young puppies are in a cave with his mother and other demons are mobile dens change every 1-3 days and travels an average distance of 8.6 km (5.3 miles) every night.

If a person needs more food, you'll spend more time eating when traveling. Devils circuits are usually their home during their hunt. At temperatures between 5 and 30 ° C (41-86 ° F) was the devil is at a body temperature of 37.4 to 38 ° C (99 ° to 100 ° F). In a subsequent study found devil pants, but do not worry about the heat. Instead, the body temperature in several other marsupials down. The normal rate of metabolism of a Tasmanian devil is 141 kJ / kg (15.3 kcal / kg) per day, several times lower than the small marsupials. A (11 lb) 5 kg devil makes use of 712 kJ (170 kcal) per day. The metabolic field is 407 kJ / kg (44.1 kcal / kg). With quolls Tasmanian devils have a similar metabolism. Carnivorous marsupials without similar size This differs from placental carnivores, which is relatively high basal metabolism. One study of the devil showed a weight of 7.9 to 7.1 kg (17-16 lb) of summer and winter, but at the same time reducing energy consumption per day increased from 2591 to 2890 kJ (619 kcal -690). With regard to body mass, the devil only a quarter of the institution of the quoll is eating, so you survive longer during food shortages.

The devil is a key species in the ecosystem of Tasmania.  Tasmanian devils take prey up to the size of a small kangaroo, but in practice they are opportunistic and eat carrion more often, they hunt live prey. Although the devil favors wombats because of the ease of removal and fat, all small native mammals such bettongs and potoroos, eating domesticated mammals (including sheep), birds, fish, fruit, vegetable matter, insects, tadpoles, frogs and reptiles. Their diet is largely varied and depends on the food available. For the extinction of the thylacine, the Tasmanian devil ate thylacine boy left alone in a cave, while their parents were away. The extinction of the thylacine, which also ate devils accelerate They are known to hunt rats of the ocean water and feed on dead fish washed ashore. Although devils can bite through metal traps, they tend to their powerful jaws captivity contrary, they continue to break food preservation to escape. Flocks of sheep by sniffing 10-15 m and examined attack if the prey is sick. Devils in search of food seem to dig, dig in one case, to bury a dead horse who died of the disease to eat. Devils eat on average about 15% of their body weight each day, even if it can consume up to 40% of their body weight in 30 minutes if the opportunity arises. Tasmanian devil, all traces of a carcass of a small animal swallows the bone and skin, if desired Can vary the diet of a devil significant for men and women, and in the season, according to studies of Cradle Mountain. In winter, men prefer medium large mammals, with a ratio of 4:5, but in summer they prefer larger prey in a ratio 7:02. In winter, medium and large mammals, 25% and 58%, respectively, which corresponds to 7% of small mammals and birds 10%.

Devil child, sometimes trees and small vertebrates and invertebrates, young climbing climb trees eat the larvae and eggs of birds. During the year, resulting adults Devil 16.2% of their contribution to biomass by species, almost all of possum meat, only 1.0% are large birds. From February to July, subadult devils 35.8% contribution of biomass in trees manage 12.2% to 23.2% and the birds should be opossum. Source Devils Winter Women 40.0% contribution of tree species, including 26.7% to 8.9%, as possums and various birds. Not all of these animals were captured while in the trees, but the high number of women. Higher than spotted tail quoll men in the same season, it is rare, because the devil has less tree climbing skills Eating is a social event for the Tasmanian Devil. This combination of a solitary animal that eats the devil makes a community unique among carnivores. The devil eat after a system. Normally, the dominant animal eats until it tired and late in the fight against all opponents in the meantime. Reports animals in the forest with her hair and tail, looking back their conquerors and bite their victims, if possible. When quolls eat a carcass, devils will tend to chase them. This is a big problem for spotted tail quolls, as they kill relatively large possums and can not finish their meal before the arrival of the devil. In contrast, little victims Ostfront quoll appear much smaller and completely food demons. This is considered a possible reason sprung from the relatively small population of spotted tail.

A study of feeding devils identified 20 physical postures, including their characteristic vicious yawn, and eleven different vocal sounds that communicate devil, because they use for food. The white spots are the devil night vision colleagues. Digestion is very fast and dasyurids the Tasmanian devil, which a few hours before trying the food in the small intestine for a long time compared to some other Dasyuridae. Devils are known to perform the same places and do in one place, but a return latrines devil. Manure devil very large compared to the size of the body, an average of 15 cm (5.9 inches) in length, but there were samples that are 25 cm (9.8 inches). Owen and Pemberton believe that the relationship between Tasmanian devils and Thylacines "close and complex" was in direct competition for prey and probably safe. The Thylacines cast out demons trapped the devil murders and ate thylacine thylacine young devil. Wedge-tailed eagles are considering one based diet bait and demons as rivals. Quolls and devils are also seen as a direct competitor in Tasmania. 1-200 in just generations of nearly two years, by the action of the same distance, the devil, the largest species, the spotted tail quoll, and determines the smallest species of quoll developed  Males fight females during breeding season, and females mate with demons the dominant male. Females can ovulate. Up to three times for a period of 21 days, and the coupling can result in five days was recorded only one copy of a pair of coupling in the cave for days 8 Devils are not monogamous, and the second women with several males if not guarded after mating, the males mate with several females during a season.

Children up to 16 men in their lives, while the average woman mating season four and 12 children. Theoretically, this means that the devil population can double on an annual basis and makes the species insulated against high mortality. Pregnancy is high, 80% two years for women with babies in the bag were observed during the breeding season. Gestation lasts 21 days, and devils give birth to 20-30 young permanent, with a weight of about 0.18 to 0.24 grams (0.0063 to 0.0085 oz). At birth, the front leg, organ development with claws, unlike many marsupials, the claws of demons for children disappear. Tasmanian devil young are variously "puppy", "Joey" or "gnomes". The bag woman Tasmanian devil, as the wombat, opens to the rear, making it physically difficult for women to communicate with young people in the pocket. Despite the large litter at birth, the female has only four nipples, so there are never more than four suck in your pocket, and the old man is a devil woman, the smaller their nests . Inside the bag, the young nurtured to grow rapidly. 15 days, the outer part of the ear visible, even if they are the head and not the devil 10 weeks. Growth begins fur on the muzzle and back through the body, even if the layer queue back first thing is the last part of the body covered. Zoologist Eric Guiler recorded its size at present as follows: long nose crown 5.87 cm (2.31 inches), tail length of 5.78 cm (2.28 inches), length 2 pes , 94 cm (1.16 inches), Manus 2.30 cm (0.91 inches) originating, 4.16 cm (1.64 inches), forearm 4.34 cm (1.71 inches) and the length of cranio- tail is 11, 9 cm (4.7 in.). Meanwhile, the Devil extending linear rhythm. Meanwhile, still drinking milk. Guiler died in 1970 study, females during rearing their offspring in the bag.
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